Probability & Statistics

About group

Probability is one of the most interesting topics in math as it is closely related to our life and decisions we make on a daily basis. It is also a lot of fun as a number of games are based on probability & statistics theory. We will post some of the most interesting problems as well as answer the questions you may have on the subject.

Keywords

Hi everyone! My name is Minseo Kim, and I am the COO of InterSTEM, a non-profit organization that aims to promote the understanding of STEM-relevant topics globally.

We are currently organizing a student-run research program, a unique opportunity for students to explore and dive deeper into the world of STEM. There will be four research teams, each consisting of 5-7 high schoolers and in charge of different research topics (physics, biology, data science, machine learning, etc). In addition to regular team members, each team will have one team leader who must have enough research experience in whichever topic they are confident in and have the ability to lead the project. If you are interested in this team leader position, please fill out the application here: forms.gle/... SHuKZHXaM8


For questions or concerns, please contact interstemplatform@gmail.com. Thank you in advance, and we are extremely happy to work with you!
The link above is not working, here is the new link to the application: forms.gle/... 6YeMtpERG6
Have you ever wondered how to analyze chance events to guess what the outcome will be? Do you have a strong interest in math? Beyond the Five is proud to announce that we are offering a free Probability Theory course for all the curious intellectuals out there!

This course is the study of the theory of probability and chance at the Calculus level. Students will rigorously learn statistical measures (variance, covariance, expected value, etc.), important probabilistic distributions (Normal, Bernoulli, Geometric, Poisson, etc.), Discrete Random Variables, Continuous Random Variables, and Markov Chains. Comfort with mathematical rigor and/or prior experience in Calculus is preferred.

What is Beyond the Five?
Beyond The Five is a non-profit organization that offers free, online, self-paced AP®, SAT/ACT, and college level courses for passionate learners. Feel free to check out our other courses at beyondthefive.org.

We look forward to seeing you!

Join our community of passionate learners at discord.gg/2ZXzKK8.
Are you looking for a boost on your resume?

Trying to find meaningful opportunities during this stay-at-home-period?

Consider starting a chapter with Elevate & Educate!

I’m the Co-founder and Co-President of Elevate & Educate (we are currently getting registered as a 501c3 Nonprofit). Our organization educates children in the PreK to 8th grades about STEAM-related topics. We have our very own curriculums, programs, endorsements, competitions, and much more. We have had so much popularity in our area (Downingtown, PA) that we expanded and we are currently starting up 15 new chapters!! We have 10 Domestic chapters (in the USA) and a total of 5 international chapters (2 in India, 1 in Canada, 1 in Nepal, 1 in Bangladesh).

We are looking for upcoming high school or college students to start up chapters in their area! Why should you start up a chapter? If you start a chapter, you will be the president, and you will have a high chance of being selected as an international team representative in the next few months. You can start a chapter in any country, and almost any state! We have taught over 400 children so far, and that number is likely to reach 1500 by the end of December as we start up more chapters around the world.

We are getting lots of interest from parents, schools, and other organizations and we believe that we can impact more people by starting up as many chapters as we can.

We have made a chapter startup kit which will give you everything you need to know about how to start up a chapter! It’s simple, easy, fun, and rewarding! Creating a chapter with us will allow you to apply to our international executive team. Please fill out this form: tinyurl.com/elevatechapter. Please email me at shreydhingra04@gmail.com, or text my number: 4844014264 if you have further questions. If you fill out the form, we’ll get back to you in a few hours!

We are a credible organization! We have received endorsements from a total of 7 local businesses, and even a few School Districts! If you’d like to learn more about us before starting up a chapter, please visit our Instagram and Facebook @ elevate.educate, and our website elevateandeducate.online.

Thanks!!
Hi everyone! My name is Ryan Liu, and I am the CEO of InterSTEM, a non-profit organization dedicated to expanding access to STEM education in underprivileged communities and fostering a genuine passion for the sciences. InterSTEM is composed of four main sectors: a tutoring service for students of all ages in subjects ranging from cybersecurity to calculus, a blog where writers utilize STEM to educate readers on current events, a research mentorship program, and various events such as hackathons and research symposiums.

Currently, our organization is based in Southern California, but we hope to expand across the country and internationally. Although we are still a new organization (we launched last week!), we already have over 50 prospective members and have been receiving lots of positive feedback in our community. If you would like to get involved, please comment below or shoot a message to interstemplatform@gmail.com. Additionally, if you would like to be a writer, tutor, or take one of our classes, please fill out the corresponding form from this link: linktr.ee/interstem. Regardless of your strengths and passions, we will be extremely happy to work with you. Thank you in advance!
For those who are planning to pursue statistics as a major in college this is one of the most interesting project competitions to get involved in - sponsored by American Statistical Association

www.amstat... -7-12.aspx
Are you looking for a WOW-Factor on your resume?

Trying to find meaningful opportunities during this stay-at-home-period?

Consider starting a chapter with Elevate & Educate!

My name is Shrey, I’m a 16 year old rising 11th Grader. I’m the Co-founder and Co-President of Elevate & Educate (we are currently getting registered as a 501c3 Nonprofit). A group of friends and I started this organization only 2 months ago, in April 2020. Our organization educates children in grades PreK to 8 about STEAM-related topics. We have our very own curriculums, programs, endorsements, competitions, and much more. We have had so much popularity in our area (Downingtown, PA) that we expanded and started a new chapter in San Francisco, CA! We have taught over 300 children so far, and that number is likely to reach 1000 by the end of December as we start up more chapters around the world.

We are getting lots of interest from parents, and we believe that we can impact more people by starting up chapters all over the world.

We have made a chapter startup kit which will give you everything you need to know about how to start up a chapter! It’s simple, easy, fun, and rewarding! Creating a chapter with us will allow you to join our worldwide executive team, which will definitely stand out on a resume. Please let me know if you’re interested in starting up a chapter. You can DM me here, text my number: 4844014264, or DM my Instagram: @shreyd1

We are a credible organization! We have received endorsements from a total of 7 local businesses, and two School Districts (over 15 schools)! If you’d like to learn more about us before starting up a chapter, please visit our Instagram and Facebook @elevate.educate, and our website elevateandeducate.online.

Thanks!!
If you've ever wanted a sneak preview of college classes, this video will review Harvard Class Math 1A: Introduction to Calculus, a rough equivalent of AP Calculus AB.
www.youtub... KQvwr0is_4
For those interested in a career in data science we have put together a short list of colleges where you can get an undergraduate degree in this subject

www.roundp... e-programs
This video will review Harvard Class Statistics 104, Introduction to Quantitative Methods for Economics, commonly nicknamed Frat 104.
www.youtub... n1YbpHJvLU
hey man this is very generic stuff - show us things that we can't find elsewhere
This video will review Harvard Class Economics 1123: Introduction to Econometrics.
www.youtub... OvWOuqHkxA
Hi!

My name is Johnson Jin and I am a 2021 student. I am the president and founder of an organization called the Global Youth Coalition where we believe that the youth generation is responsible with helping unprivileged communities in predominantly the education field. Over the past year, we have expanded across the US with several international chapters as well located in Turkey, Pakistan, and China. By having each chapter help with their local region, it will create a large impact to the world that we are all connected to through a network in of our organization. In my local chapter for example, we do biweekly reading buddies in an under privileged communities as well as we are working on a bookshelf to distribute to a facility such as Boys and Girls club. I am also flying out to Seattle in March as an invitational speaker at a conference. With this being said, I am not trying to boast any accomplishments, but trying to convey that GYC has a bright future ahead and we are welcome to any new members. As we are looking for means of expansion, if you are interested in starting a chapter in your school or want any details feel free to message me!

Johnson
Anyone planning to major in Statistics here? I plan to major or minor in it but not sure what else to take, just doesn't seem like a great major
I did MA in Stats - it is a great major irrespective of what you want to do later in life as it is relevant for many disciplines including finance, politics, biology. As an example, you can take it together with Economics for a double major
I might do a minor
Has anyone taken AP Stats here?
Anybody interested in Game Theory and Financial Engineering in this group?
Am interested in game theory and was actually looking for a class i can take (nothing around me)...dont know much about financial engineering.
@James feel free to post some game theory problems here. Re financial engineering, I did take a couple of fin engineering/math finance classes but ultimately believe that market behavior cannot be explained using just stochastic models...
John coursera has game theory course. apparently very good
This is an old problem and we should have probably started our group with it but here we go...

Monty Hall Problem
You are on a TV game show and given the choice of three doors:

Behind one door is a car which you want to win and behind the others, goats.

You pick a door, say Door 1, but the host (who knows what's behind the doors) instead opens another a door which has a goat.

He then asks you, "You have one more option: do you want to pick another door or stay with Door 1 that you originally picked?" Is it to your advantage to switch your choice?
It is in your advantage to pick another door. When the game started you had a 33.3% chance to pick correctly. If you pick door 1 then the host shows a door which contains a goat that means the other door has a 66.6% chance of containing the car. Therefore it is in you best interest to switch doors.
Not sure if this the right place to ask this but what are my career options with Statistics degree? I like Stats and thinking to major in it in college. Any alternative majors that are similar?
Lots of options like actuary, economist, statistician (across various industries) but also many finance related jobs require good understanding of statistics. If economics or finance is of interest to you going for econometrics major is an option too. And of course you can choose to do applied math.
If you are planning to attend university in the US you should probably know the answer!

Assuming you are one of approximately 30,000 of equally qualified students applying to top 10 US universities with an average acceptance rate of around 7%, what is your chance of being admitted to at least one of these schools?
Now that we have solved birthday paradox problem an easy one for you. For those of you who understand the game of tennis it will be more fun...this problem was posted by Peter Winkler (math professor at Dartmouth University) in his math puzzles collection

Winning Wimbledon

As a result of temporary magical powers, you have made it to the Wimbledon finals and are playing Roger Federer for all the marbles. However, your powers cannot last the whole match. What score do you want it to be when they disappear, to maximize your chances of hanging on for a win?
Yes the correct answer is to be two sets up and tiebreak at 6-6 in the third one with 6-0 score then you have more chances (6) to win the match than if you are just up 40-0 in the final game
Wouldn’t it be better to tiebreak the 1st set then get as close to winning the 2nd set as possible so that even if you lose the 2nd set you still have a chance to win the 3rd?
No because then you would have to win many more points if you are playing for the whole set and if you are in the last set (by the way Wimbledon is 3 out 5 sets but it doesn't matter) and up 6-0 in the tiebreak you just need to win 1 out of 6 points to win the match. The probability of winning 1 out of 6 is higher (even assuming you always only have 0.1% chance of winning any single point from Federer).
Did you know that in the room of 20 to 30 people you are very likely to find two people who share the same birthday? This is called birthday paradox. Try to calculate the probability of two students having the same birthday in the class of 30. This is counter-intuitive and you will be surprized by the result.
To follow...anyone has an idea how to solve it?
I've always found it easiest to calculate the complement of this problem rather then solve it directly, it makes it easier to understand to me. So in a room of 30 people find the probability that none of them have the same birthday.

First we need to find the entire sample space Ω or all the choices in which no condition occurs in the event. If we have 30 people, they can choose any birthday in ( 365 ) ^ 30 ways.

Now we can choose the number of people without the same birthday in 365 * 364 * 363 * ..... * 336 ways. ( First person can choose from 365 days and each subsequent has 1 less choice in order for none to have the same birthday )

Hence the desired probability is
( 365 * 364 * 363 * ..... * 336 ) / ( 365 ^ 30 ) = 29.4%

Thus the Probability 30 people have the same birthday in one room is

1 - .294 = 70.6%

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Jay your right when you start counting each possible pair of people, since each person compares their birthday to each other person. However in doing so each of these pairs has a probability of 1 / 365 of being a match meaning it must be taken to the power of ( 29 + 28 + ... ).

The probability 2 people have 2 different birthdays would then be

1 - ( 1 / 365 ) = 364 / 365

If we take this probability to the nth power for its n amount of pairs
( 420 in this case) we get :

( 364 / 365 ) ^ 420 = 31.6 %

// With the 2% error margin from my calculator not being able to accurately compute such large #s

This probability being the probability that 2 people had different birthdays we subtract it from one to get its complement.

1 - .316 = 68.4 %
Harris - excellent! And even better explanation!